A sniper is a marksman who shoots targets from concealed positions or distances exceeding the capabilities of regular personnel. Snipers typically have specialized training and distinct high-precision rifles.
In addition to marksmanship, military snipers are trained in camouflage, field craft, infiltration, reconnaissance and observation. Snipers are especially effective when deployed within the terrain of urban warfare, or forest warfare.
During the Second World War the title of distinguished sniper was awarded to 261 Red Army snipers with over 50 confirmed kills. 428,335 individuals received Red Army sniper training, including Soviet and non-Soviet partisans, with 9,534 receiving sniping 'higher qualification'. The two six-month training courses in 1942 for women alone trained nearly 55,000 snipers. On average there was at least one sniper in an infantry platoon and one in every reconnaissance platoon.
The peculiarity of sniper movement in the USSR during the war, unlike other countries, there is enough involvement of women (among Soviet snipers were operating more than a thousand women). The most effective of them was considered Lyudmila Pavlichenko. In the Army it was the very first days of the war, the year she brought a personal enemies killed by up to 309.