The regiment was formed in the city of Gdov in February 1918. The regiment included units of the former 4th Infantry Koporsky Regiment of the old army and a detachment of members of the Socialist Union of Working Youth from Petrograd.
The regiment was named the 1st Gdovskiy Revolutionary Regiment.
On November 28, at a rally in Pskov, a delegation of workers from Petrograd handed over the Red Banner to the 49th Gdovsk Regiment.
Took part in the battles with the German army. Consistently it was a part of the 1st division (as the 6th Gdovsk rifle regiment), then - as part of the 2nd division (became the 16th regiment). Later, the regiment became part of the 16th division, where it received the name 49th Gdovsky rifle regiment.
Later, the regiment fights against the White and Estonian armies for a year.
On August 26, by order of the 7th Army, the 49th Regiment was renamed the 170th Gdovsky Rifle Regiment. He became part of the 19th division.
In 1921, the Regiment was transferred to Ukraine to fight the Makhnovist detachments.