German crossbowman, early 14th centry
The crossbow had been popular in the Empire since the 12th centry, and the famed Genoese had their home town within the imperial boundaries. This crossbowman - from the Manessa Codex - wears a coat of scale armour, which could have been made from horn or leather as easily as metal. The short sleeves of the mail reveal the sleeves of his quilted undertunic, which cushioned the shock of blows. Under his mail hood is a quilted arming cap, and perhaps even an iron skull cap. His weapon has a bow of horn and is spanned by slipping the cord over the belt hook, and placing the foot in the stirrup.