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Forum » Russian Civil war / Гражданская война в России » Thread: PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22 -- Page 2  Jump To: 


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Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 11-11-2011 11:05
 
About the appearance of partisan, supply and logistic support the NRA and not only.
Source: http://www.tyl.mil.ru/

The struggle for the establishment of Soviet power in the Far East was very long and sharp. In November 1917 the government took in Vladivostok Vladivostok Soviet Executive Committee, headed by the Bolshevik Sukhanov. On the night of December 25, 1917 armed detachments of the Red Army soldiers from the local garrison, sailors Amur river flotilla occupied the important points and the establishment of the city of Khabarovsk. Opened the next day in the city of Khabarovsk third Congress of Soviets of the boundary of the Far East, proclaimed Soviet power throughout the Far East. The congress declared that the only power center in the country is the Council of People's Commissars in Chapter VI of Lenin.
Soviet power in the Far East defended with arms. In January 1918, in Beijing included two Japanese, English and American warships. On the part of Manchuria was made Ataman Semyonov is supported by the Japanese. The Civil War in the Far East, which lasted for almost 5.5 years.
One of the first Soviet military in the Far East have become the Red commanders Ussuri front. This is the front commander, V. Sakovich, deputy Flegontov, Zbruev, Shevchenko, Kolmanovich, head of military equipment Dragoshevsky.
At that time, issues of the war economy and supply chain management was entrusted to the heads of the revolutionary forces of supply fronts, armies, divisions and brigades. At the regimental level were responsible for the supply of farm managers.
The Red Army, defending the interests of Soviet power, especially in the early years of civil war, has experienced enormous difficulties, including the material. This is how the training of forces and means of subordinate military commander of the front V. Sakovich in front of one of the battles: "From the edge of towns and villages began to arrive armed Red Army troops. They were very disparate in size and armament. Detachment of the Annunciation in 1000 with a battery and machine guns. A detachment of 400 men from the station with a certain touch of Mogocha anarchism. International group of Russian, Hungarian, Chinese, Czechs, Serbs, Latvians, numbering 1,200, with the battery, machine guns, organized by the Council under the leadership of the Khabarovsk sea Karoncha paramedic, who styled himself Stenka Razin. At an organizational samostiynosti our troops, it was very difficult to calculate the forces and weapons required to move during the battle at some point. Some units have a tendency to hold in their guns as much as possible, kitchens, while their neighbors do not. All this had to be smooth, trim, to take account of. All units in the reorganized company. "
The Red Army, led by the Bolsheviks, led the fighting, winning not only victories but also suffered defeats. The revolutionary struggle for Soviet power was carried out in the Far East and guerrilla methods.
Military managers, working closely with the local population, harvested and delivered the required number of food and feed into existing troops. Harvested and used to provide troops coal, wood, sewed and dispatched troops to the current military uniforms.
In the summer of 1918 troops captured the city of Vladivostok, the counter-revolution. In the city of Khabarovsk in the hastily organized one of the first Red Army units led by Ivan Shevchuk. The detachment arrived in the area Spassk. Despite the stubborn resistance of Red, White managed to break through to Iman, and then to the city of Khabarovsk. Reds were forced to disband his forces and move to guerrilla warfare.
The men Shevchuk groups went into the forest. Soon there was formed the famous Tunguska detachment commander who was Ivan P. Shevchuk. Here remembers one of the revolutionaries of that period Postyshev addressing supply guerrilla I. Shevchuk everything necessary to conduct combat operations and human resources:
"Our party has decided to replenish the guerrillas, which was declared a mobilization of the peasant population. I was elected chairman of the Tunguska parish, as chairman, I called in early December 1919 congress in the village parish Vostorgovka. At this congress, the people parish promised to feed the staff of guerrilla squad, giving two and a half pounds of bread from each house, to deliver the required amount of feed, to give at any time, as needed, the carts. Decision of the Congress was mobilized 600 people to supplement the Tunguska unit, although for them in our group did not have enough weapons.
Near the village we took Vostorgovka warehouse at the sawmill. At the warehouse we got 200 tons of oats, shoes, boots, saws, axes, gloves and other items much needed soldiers.
Our squad perk. With him we have created a sewing workshop, sewing shoes, clothing, bakery and even organized a handicraft tanneries.
The first baptism of fire unit began with the shelling of the White Guard ships, drovyanok. In these early skirmishes still small, we do not bear the loss, but still we were wounded, and medical care was almost none. There was a military nurse in the unit, but there was no medicine, dressing material. "
An interesting story of the Civil War guerrilla party assistant PD Malysheva:
"At the front of the Ussuri in 1918 and during the fighting guerrilla groups in the vicinity of Khabarovsk and the lower Amur had a medical assistant medical assistance items that are in most cases, led by district paramedics, who had 2 year medical education. Medical assistant in clinic with. Vyatskoe head nurse on the Amur Eremenko, with a point. Trinity - paramedic Nikishin, in with. Perm (now Komsomolsk-on-Amur) - paramedic Hrapay; in Lower Tambov worked paramedic Samsonov and his wife, a midwife, Claudia M. Samson. Medical assistant, and there were points along the line the Amur and Ussuri Railway. I participated in combat operations, provide first aid to the wounded soldiers on the battlefield, and accompanied them to the clinic.
Neither the doctors nor the health units at that time we were not. There were only a company commander paramedics and nurses with no medical training. I, just out of school assistants, often had to decide difficult questions. We did not have the right tools, even the amputation of hands and feet had to be done, we can say with his bare hands. Seriously wounded had to temporarily leave the local residents. I remember a case when one soldier, seriously wounded in the leg, we were forced to leave the monastery for monks Shmakovskom, because they have a healer. In the monastery of the Red Army was cured and was released in the squad.
At that time there were bloody battles on the outskirts of the monastery Shmakovskomu, White Czechs were defeated here. Red Guard supplemented the spoils of war, among whom were many medicines, medical instruments, dressing materials. We have enough of these stocks for a long time, but unfortunately, during the retreat from Khabarovsk is a valuable property was lost.
In the spring of 1919 following the appointment of Mizin Sindinskogo guerrilla commander in the organization of which I attended, I was asked to head the medical service companies, and establish communication with the neighboring paramedical items. As I mentioned, they led the paramedics Eremenko, Hrapay, Samsonov. On a small river Nemptu for Sindinskim lake, deep in the taiga, we have organized a guerrilla hospital. All summer 1919 the guerrillas from neighboring groups - M. Izotov and brothers Kochnev - served by the hospital. Wounded, in need of skilled surgery, sent in Khabarovsk resettlement hospital under an assumed name.
In November 1919, near the city of Khabarovsk in the village Anastasevka combined guerrilla conference outlined a plan for further military operations against the interventionists and White Guards. By order of the Staff of the guerrilla groups, I went to the seat of the headquarters in the village of Lower Tambov, 500 kilometers from Khabarovsk on the Amur River, and proceeded to organize a partisan here Hospital.
Under the hospital was occupied by the post office, which launched a clinic for 50 beds. Bedding were obtained from the medical district and partly collected from the population. Dressings and medical supplies received from the mines. Maintenance staff has been recruited from local residents, mostly female volunteers. The hospital was equipped with a good idea. Were created by a pharmacy, a dressing room, and kitchen operating. Beds, medicines and medical instruments we have made a doctor's plot, which was in charge of Dmitry S. Samsonov and his wife, Claudia M..
Samsonov was quite prepared for an experienced physician. Claudia M. assumed the provision of operational and other needs of the hospital, all they need. Soon the hospital came from Khabarovsk Dyadkin paramedic.
Partisan detachments of large human losses were not killed were few, but was wounded and frostbitten, which began to come to the hospital after the first battles under Kiselevka and Tsimmermanovkoy. When the hospital did not have enough seats, had to put the wounded to their homes.
For medical care of our troops (as they move to Nikolaevsk-on-Amur), organized field hospitals in the villages Mariinsky, Sophia and others. Lower-Tambov became a leading hospital, from where the management and provision of other hospitals.
Guerrilla groups on the outskirts of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur already had an impressive force, allowing them to take the course with almost fortress Chnyrrah. The Japanese, who offered no resistance, took his troops in Nikolaevsk.
Fortress Chnyrrah is 12 km away from Nikolaevsk, there was sent a partisan truce Orlov and Sorokin farmer with an interpreter from among the prisoners. Neither the Eagles nor Sorokin did not return - the Japanese shot them. After that, the city of Nikolaevsk was subjected to artillery fire and freed guerrillas.
Since the entire region of Khabarovsk, for 900 miles, in the hands of the guerrillas, and that medical services and hospitals in the area worked okay. The wounded were already low, but were sick of passing carts and teams who travel from Nikolaevsk to Khabarovsk. Also treated the local population.
At the end of February 1920 in Nanai Hell broke camp smallpox. The infection was threatened with great danger. Upon arrival at the camp we found a really terrible picture: Nanai and nanayki huddled in the cold room Mazanov open a hole in the ceiling, there were dead. It was necessary to take immediate action. We chose the hut with heated bunks - it was a hut shaman. Patients gathered in this room. Then we took a hut in the Lower Tambov, where staged quarantine.
Initially, the Nanai anyone about the disease is not reported, use the services of a shaman, "who treated" spells. We have appointed a barrage positions and to take urgent measures to vaccination. It was not initially detritus, but a week later received detritus from Nikolaevsk, instilled in the general population and a passing guerrillas. Thus, the focus of the epidemic was eliminated.
In spring 1920 the headquarters of partisan detachments left in the Lower Tambov village Perm. In the Lower Tambov was only our hospital in which patients were more partisan. Soon guerrillas Boyko, Pavlov, and Shevchuk Kochneva entered the town of Khabarovsk. In March 1920 I was in Khabarovsk at the party conference. Soon after his return from there to us began to receive information about what 4.5 in April 1920 the Japanese treacherously attacked our garrisons in Khabarovsk and other cities on the railway line. We are in danger from Nikolaevsk.
We quickly turned the hospital, patients left at the local medical centers in the care of Samson, and most of the drugs and decided to take away property to a safe place. Property and drugs we put into large casks, they had accumulated to ten. The situation remains very worrying, the information which came from the city of Khabarovsk, were contradictory. In the Upper Tambov, where I went, I was able to contact the authorized staff, from whom I received orders to evacuate the camp hospital in Condon, where a rear base has been organized guerrilla groups.
Nanai from camp Beachy, who knew me, willingly agreed to transport us to the camp Condon, located on the river Gorun - the left tributary of the Amur. More than 120 miles had to swim against the rapid current of this mountain river, on which the boat could carry only local residents, Nanai.
On the 8th day we arrived in camp Condon - great Nanai village, with chopped under a tin roof houses and a school, where we launched a military hospital. Nanai supplied us with meat and fish. I am very sorry that I can not remember the names of the Nanai living in the camp of Condon, but I can say that Nanai - it's beautiful people with its unique culture.
In the fall, is already on the sled way, we were taken to a large group of guerrillas, frostbite and dystrophies. There have been over 200 people. The group retreated, pursued the enemy into the forest hoping to reach the Amur partisans, but lost.
What was needed was an experienced surgeon, but to Khabarovsk was 170 km. Khabarovsk underground organization has helped us - sent to a hospital surgeon, AS Zdanovsky. He has repeatedly rescued us by taking on the risk of our wounded in Khabarovsk hospital under the guise of soldiers.
The big disadvantage in the hospital was the lack of gauze and bandages had to be washed and sterilized bandages old several times. Used for bandages sarpinka, instead of cotton - the moss. Moss previously washed in water, scalded with boiling water and dried, and only after such treatment were allowed to work. I must say that we rescued moss. Sometimes Nanai brought us Sauri - a thin shavings, skillfully cooked nanaykami. In quality and it is quite hygroscopic replaced wool, but it gave us in small quantities, and had to spend it carefully. Instead of gauze and used tow free from boon, but this story gave a lot of garbage.
So partisan hospital during the Civil War served as a great job of providing medical care partisans despite the lack of proper equipment, lack of dressings, the lack of doctors. "
Red partisans of the Far East feel over their shoulders supported by the local population, which strongly helped them food, fodder, and many other necessities of life for material goods.
About these events, remembers revolutionary Postyshev: "Initially, guerrilla units, then the regular Red Army, who was born on the left bank of the Amur from guerrilla groups Primorye, Amur region, and then was formed Far Eastern Republic (FER), and our regular Red Army, created from former guerrilla groups began to reorganize in the People's Revolutionary Army. I remember how many injuries, how many grievances (often serious discontent) on the renaming of the Red Army in narodoarmeytsev. We were ordered to remove the asterisks on the cap badge pinned to the sleeves and wear diamonds. "What are we, - said the Red Army, - for which they fought, for which he trampled underfoot own boundless taiga, for the blood shed - to replace the old red star badge on the unfortunate diamond?".
There were even some who say: "You sew the sleeves on our diamonds, and then gradually move the their shoulders and return us to the shoulder straps. No, comrades, you started a something wrong, an evil smell, smells of old. " We told them: "Comrades, this is Moscow's decision, and you know what's all a matter of direct leader of the workers and peasants, the party leader Comrade Lenin." Only it made the former guerrillas obey orders to rename and change its appearance, that is to change the badge and star on the diamond. "
Badge on the hat pictured the star, to which were attached to a pick and anchor to symbolize mining and fishing industries of the Far East.
Far revolutionary army initially existed separately by area. They were not the same on the organizational structure, membership, combat capability, the level of logistical supplies. A lot of the Bolsheviks have done to transform the Maritime guerrilla groups and former Kolchak parts that have fallen to the side of the guerrillas into regular revolutionary army. The revolutionary army seaside, created by the end of March 1920 amounted to 25,000 infantry and cavalry, 32 guns and 76 guns. Directly supervised the activities of its Military Council of Primorsky national government, which led the Bolsheviks SG Lazo, AN Lutsky, IM Sibirtsev.
When the Military Council was deployed operational management, purchasing VP headed Shishkin. Businesses edge reconstructed on a war footing. For example, the Annunciation mechanical plant and shops of the city to repair weapons, manufactured parts for guns and machine guns, shells and cartridges produced. In settlements Zeya, Ulm, Surozhevka and other repair shops were equipped with rifles and ammunition manufacturing. Settling the massive sewing uniforms and equipment. In autumn 1920 the men of the East Trans-Baikal Front had been sent on 20 thousand sets of uniforms, coats and 16 000 6000 quilted jacket.
People's Revolutionary Army triumphed over selective, well-trained and equipped adversary. Retreating enemy left a lot of military equipment, weapons and ammunition. So, on the hills in the Transbaikal and Daurian steppes in the elimination "Chita plugs", within months of the People's Revolutionary Army seized 16 armored trains, and about 100 guns, 150 machine guns, large quantities of ammunition and food, clothing and equipment. These victories opened the possibility of closer union of the Far Eastern Republic and Soviet Russia. The capital of the Far Eastern Republic began to read.
But not always the situation with the food supply of fighters of the Revolutionary People's Army was stable.
From the memoirs of the division commander Flegontova A.: "20 October, I received orders to occupy the city of Khabarovsk. October 23 best of my division - 1st Soviet Cavalry Regiment, part of the 3rd Brigade and mine subversive Company - entered the city.
The units included in Khabarovsk, experienced an acute need for food and uniforms. Existing staff Siberian money had walking in the market and engage in prohibited requisition. The men were content with one eighth of pounds of rotten fish and a pound of bread. So eat and the entire chain of command. I had to work 18 hours a day. Lurking Whites were trying to take revenge: not only set fire to military stores, and private buildings.
Working conditions made worse by the political situation, diplomatic relations between the government of Chita and Vladivostok. Relationship confused SRs, especially Amur, too docile and timid in front of the consular corps of foreign powers and command of the Japanese invaders. Apparently so Chita Government, giving me an order to join in Khabarovsk, edit it this way: "According to the Japanese release of Khabarovsk - take it to the area south of the river Iman, entering into a formal submission to the commander of the seaside Government General Boldyrev, in fact, remain subordinate to us" . Order brought us no wiser in diplomacy, a lot of trouble and forced to survive difficult times.
As I said, the division at Khabarovsk were stripped and hungry. In the city there was a quartermaster warehouse clothing, little food and surviving a huge stock of equipment, but the quartermaster officers, with orders from General Boldyrev - without his knowledge, nothing to give - to all of our insistence refuses. We certainly had ample opportunity to take these warehouses, because the power was on our side, but Commander Cheats comrade Eiche on a direct line to the request, what to do in this case, usually ordered: "Take the warehouses, to form a commission," and when he immediately pointed out that one can only take power, then heard in response: "Do not you dare to create conflict."
In order not to create conflict, we have resorted to subtle ways: by order of the quartermasters Khabarovsk Boldyrevskih generals were sent to Vladivostok from warehouses cloth, some surviving artillery and even food - corned beef. All this went on the Ussuri Railway. Superintendents of railway stations on my order delayed the entire burden and transported back to Khabarovsk.
Helped us learn Warehouse representative government and a member of the seaside conciliation Russian-Japanese Commission communist comrade, RA Zeitlin. Thanks to its agility and sober diplomat convincing logic, it has overcome many of the formalities, "the General Staff," Boldyrev. "
After creating a unity government in the Far Eastern Republic of the situation has changed for the better - the army was able to continue to build on the model of the Red Army.
Commander of the Order of November 8, 1920 № 4, all of the NRA, insurgent, guerrilla and former Kolchak, sided with the revolution in the fields of Western Transbaikalia, Eastern Trans-Baikal and the Amur were reduced to four infantry divisions, one cavalry and three separate Caucasian brigade. All the parts were a part of the 1st Army of Transbaikal and Amur 2nd Army. In command of the 2nd Army entered the Amur SM Seryshev.
In 1921, the Khabarovsk local hospital rewrites to the military hospital of 600 beds for the treatment of soldiers and commanders NRA. Its chief until 1929, was the organizer of the military health service People's Revolutionary Army surgeon Theophanes Akimovich Chess.
In 1921, after the defeat of the interventionists and White Guards in the western and southern borders of our country, in the Far East continued to hold another expeditionary force in Japan, which supplied weapons and military equipment with everything you need organized, but scattered White Guard detachments. These troops were advancing from the so-called "neutral zone", which is guarded by the Japanese division.
In December 1921, White Guard detachment took up positions north of Spassk on the Ussuri River under the command of the White General Molchanov, went on the offensive under the slogan: "Go to the Kremlin." The offensive coincided with the reorganization of the White Guards, the People's Revolutionary Army.
People's Revolutionary Army experiencing enormous difficulties in food and weapons. B. Blucher says: "It is difficult to now all the while the current situation. Overwhelmed by the severe frosts, extending to 40-45 degrees. Abandoned in uninhabited areas Volochaevskaya plain, badly dressed, malnourished men suffered incredible hardships. "
Strengthen the army prevented the ruin and famine. Was very difficult position for transport, without which it was impossible to address issues of economy, defense, and logistics issues. The average daily mileage of trains stood at only 100 kilometers. Contemporary, hard to believe: the train from Chita to Khabarovsk was 21 days. In a difficult 1921, when they were registered every ounce of bread, each peck of metal, every penny, Labor and Defense Council on the personal recommendation of VI Lenin, for the Far Eastern Republic allocates 2.3 million rubles.
April 3, 1920 for all personnel of the Red Army entered arm-marks of arms, which were worn on the left sleeve midway between the upper arm and elbow point at a distance from the elbow joint outwards about 12 cm
The infantry was a sign of distinction, which was made of cloth of crimson instrument and had a diamond shape, facing an acute angle upward. In the center against the backdrop of a yellow sun with radiating rays of him upwards embroidered red star. The lower part of the sign embroidered woven silk gray-green color. On a green field under a star attached metal pin yellow, representing two crossed rifles.
The sign was made of artillery scarlet cloth instrument and had the shape of the projectile. The sign had the inner content is the same as the sign for the infantry with the difference that instead of crossed rifles, were crossed guns.
The sign for the cavalry was blue and had the shape of a horseshoe, a star was crossed swords.
January 31, 1922 № 322 Order RVSR any earlier uniform items, except for leather-bast, which for some time continued to exist, have been canceled.
Overcoat were made of gray cloth, with two lateral and two breast pockets. Outside, three color sewn valve (by the nature of the troops).
Introduced a new unified strictly regulated uniforms. With a lack of colored cloth on the chest valves were made from the same cloth as the collar. Winter headgear for troops of all arms remained a helmet, established in 1919, but has been slightly modified cut and color. It was made of cloth mundirnogo dark gray color. To the front of the headdress of cloth sewn star color by the nature of the troops, diameter of 9.5 cm
Introduced a single cut of his coat, shirt and hat. The old decals from that time have been canceled, except for sleeve signs arms.
Uniforms commanders did not differ from that supplied the Red Army.
The military command of the Far Eastern Republic has taken all steps to fully prepare for a decisive battle. Has a general mobilization 4 to 6 and ages. The workers and peasants of the Far East and Transbaikal tried every way to help his army. The railroad workers organized the work on repair of locomotives and wagons. Miners Kivdinskih mines gave the People's Revolutionary Army of 13 250 tons of coal. The team Verheudinskogo plant for six days produced 1000 sets of railroad stoves. At the urging of the RCP (b) Employees sent its defenders 2000 coats, padded jackets 1,5 thousands, 4000 sweaters, mittens 2000. All of this is to some extent contributed to the victory at Volochayevka February 12, 1922. In February, the city of Khabarovsk has been released. With the defeat of the military hordes in Primorye, Amur, Transbaikalia hostilities in the Far East is not over, was to release of the interventionists and White Guards in remote northern areas of the region. At the end of 1922 was the Soviet Kamchatka Peninsula, and later the whole territory of the Soviet Far East has become.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 18-11-2011 10:30
 
ТАНКОВЫЕ ВОЙСКА ДАЛЬНЕВОСТОЧНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ

Источник: Армада № 14, 1999. М. Коломиец, И. Мощанский, С. Ромадин. Танки Гражданской войны.

В марте 1920 года американскими войсками было доставлено во Владивосток десять танков «Рено». Они находились в закрытых вагонах под видом «помощи американского Красного Креста». С помощью железнодорожного машиниста и сцепщика вагонов, сочувствовавших большевикам, вагоны с танками были заменены пустыми, а сами танки, замаскированные под эшелон с хлебом, отправились в Благовещенск к красным партизанам.
Все танки не имели вооружения, магнето и вентиляторных ремней. К лету 1920 года часть машин была приведена в порядок и вооружена 37-мм пушками «Гочкис», пулеметами «Максим» и «Гочкис». При этом экипаж каждого танка составлял три (!) человека. Следует отметить, что для защиты в бою стволов пулеметов от пуль и осколков на башнях смонтировали броневые «щеки» довольно больших размеров. Оснащенные такими «щеками» башни не имели кругового вращения, так как дополнительная бронировка цеплялась за крышу моторного отделения. В августе из этих танков «Рено» сформировали 1-й Амурский тяжелый танковый дивизион (пять взводов по два танка и хозяйственная команда), вошедший в состав Народно-Революционной Армии Дальневосточной Республики (НРА ДВР). Состав дивизиона (на 15 июня 1920 года) был следующий:
1-й взвод – танки № 9254 «Безпощадный» и № 9141 «Интернационал»;
2-й взвод – танки № 4320 «Сивуч» и № 9108 «Зоркий»;
3-й взвод – танки № 9446 «Лазо» и № ? «Мухин»;
4-й взвод – танки № 9092 «Революционер» и № 1871 «Гроза»;
5-й взвод – танки № 1930 «Амурец» и № 9096 «Мститель».
20 сентября 1920 года командир дивизиона Н. Шамрай докладывал в штаб Амурского фронта ДВР о состоянии вверенной ему части:
«Доношу, что в настоящее время в Благовещенске находится шесть танок, из коих пять исправны и один находится в разобранном виде в ремонте. Но ввиду неимения патентованных (то есть «фирменных» французских – прим. авт.) вентиляторных ремней и неполного вооружения танок, таковые не могут быть использованы в действии. Вооружение танок следующее:
1) две танки во неимение вооружения совершенно не вооружены;
2) две танки, каждая вооружена одним 37-мм японским скорострельным орудием, у коих нет боевых пружин. Заказ на пружины сделали в срочном виде на заводе Чевурина и по изготовлении таковых орудия могут быть приведены в действие;
3) две танки, каждая вооружена по одному пулемету: системы «Гочкис» и «Максим». К пулемету «Максим» нет запасных частей, как то: ствола и замка. В настоящее время имеется: снарядов 350 штук, 5000 патрон к пулемету «Гочкис» и 250 патрон при одной только ленте к пулемету «Максим»».
Летом-осенью 1920 года танки повзводно действовали против белых в составе войск Амурского фронта. Командиром дивизиона Н. Шамраем была разработана «Инструкция порядка введения танок в бой при полевой обстановке», выдержки из которой мы приводим:
«Самое главное обстоятельство введения танок в бой – это условие по возможности пройти им до места боя небольшое расстояние, дабы танки могли пройти самостоятельно с боем большое расстояние. Танки наносят серьезное поражение и громадное моральное впечатление на противника только в количестве несколько штук, посылать в бой одну машину не разрешается».
Видимо, «моральное впечатление» и было главным назначением при действии танков. Ведь подобных «стальных чудищ» никто в Забайкалье не видел. Например, 19 октября 1920 года части 5-й Амурской бригады НРА ДВР при поддержке танков 3-го взвода атаковали белых на станции Урульга. Белые открыли сильный артиллерийско-пулеметный огонь, но появление танков произвело на них ошеломляющее впечатление, и они в беспорядке отошли. Станция была взята пехотой ДВР без потерь.
Танки дивизиона использовались в боях в течение 1921 года, причем на некоторых машинах первоначальное вооружение заменили на другое. К концу года все «Рено» вышли из строя из-за отсутствия запасных частей и специального инструмента. Поэтому в декабре 1921 года по решению военного совета НРА ДВР танки были отправлены для ремонта в Россию. Только 2-й взвод «в силу сложившейся боевой обстановки» был оставлен в НРА. По донесению начальника бронечастей НРА, «в состав взвода входят два танка французского типа «Бабэ». «Зоркий» вооружен пулеметом «Гочкиса» с удлиненным кавалерийским прикладом (патроны в обоймах), «Сивуч» – пулеметом «Максим». Из инструмента для ремонта и разборки имеется только один французский ключ. Запасных частей нет совершенно».
К 28 января 1922 года удалось отремонтировать только один танк – «Зоркий», который на следующий день убыл на фронт. 9 февраля по приказу начальника Восточного фронта ДВР танк был отправлен под Волочаевку, где 10 февраля был придан Особому Амурскому полку и направлен в стрелковую цепь. Но ввиду наступления темноты и сильного пулеметного огня белых, полк отошел в исходное положение. «Зоркий» был оставлен у проволочного заграждения противника, чтобы утром совместно с пехотой начать наступление. На рассвете 11 февраля белые заметили танк и открыли по нему огонь с бронепоезда «Каппелевец», стоявшего на станции Волочаевка. Одним из снарядов с бронепоезда у танка разбило направляющее колесо, и машина встала. Другой снаряд пробил насквозь оба борта, едва не уничтожив экипаж. После этого водитель и пулеметчики бросили танк, взорвав гранатами бензобак. Так закончилась боевая служба танков амурских партизан.

Tank troops of the Far Eastern Republic

Source: Armada № 14, 1999. M. Kolomiets, I. Moschansky, S. Romadin. Tanks of the Civil War.

In March 1920, U.S. troops were brought to Vladivostok ten tanks "Reno." They were in the covered wagons in the guise of "aid the American Red Cross." With the train driver and shunter wagon, sympathized with the Bolsheviks, the cars were replaced with tanks empty and tanks themselves, disguised as a train with bread, went to Blagoveshchensk to the red partisans.
All tanks were not weapons, magneto and fan belts. By the summer of 1920 of the cars were put in order and is armed with 37mm guns "Hotchkiss", machine-guns "Maxim" and "Hotchkiss". When the crew of each tank was three (!) people. It should be noted that in order to protect the gun barrel in the battle of bullets and shrapnel on the towers mounted armor "cheeks" are quite large. Equipped with these "jaws" of the tower had a circular rotation as an additional reservation is clinging to the roof of the engine compartment. In August of the tanks, "Renault" have formed the 1st Amur heavy tank battalion (five platoons of two tanks and the economic team), which became part of the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic (DVR NRA). The division (as at 15 June 1920) was as follows:
1st platoon - tanks № 9254 "Мercilessly" and № 9141 "International";
2nd platoon - the tanks № 4320 "Sivuch" and № 9108 "Sharp";
3rd platoon - tanks № 9446 "Lazo" and №? "Mukhin";
4th platoon - tanks № 9092 "Revolutionary" and № 1871 "The Storm";
5th Platoon - tanks № 1930 "Amurets" and № 9096 "Avenger."
September 20, 1920 battalion commander N. Shamray reported to the headquarters of the Amur Front DVR on the state entrusted to him by parts:
"Report that at present there are six in Blagoveshchensk tanks, of which five are intact, and one is disassembled for repair. But due to lack of a proprietary (ie, "brand" of the French - ca. Aut.) Fan belts and incomplete tank weapons, none of these can be used in action. Armament tanok the following:
1) two tanks in the absence of weapons completely armed;
2) two tanks, each armed with one 37-mm rapid-Japanese instrument, in whom there is no mainspring. Order to have a spring in a temporary plant Chevurina and manufacture of such weapons can be brought into action;
3) two tanks, each armed with one gun: the system "Hotchkiss" and "Maxim". Go to the machine gun "Maxim" no spare parts, such as: the barrel and lock. There are currently: 350 pieces of ordnance, 5000 machine-gun bullet, "Hotchkiss" and 250 cartridge with a tape only to the machine gun "Maxim". "
During the summer and autumn of 1920, tanks platoons operated against white troops in the Amur Front. Battalion commander Nikolai Shamrayev developed the "Order of the order of introduction tanok in battle under field conditions", excerpts from which we quote:
"The most important factor in the introduction tanok fight - this condition is possible to pass them to the place of battle a short distance, so that tanks could pass on their own to fight a long distance. Tanks inflict serious injury and a huge impression on the morale of the enemy only in the amount of several pieces, to send into battle one machine is not allowed. "
Apparently, the "moral experience" and was the main purpose of the action of tanks. After all, these "monsters of steel," no one in the Transbaikal seen. For example, October 19, 1920 units of the 5th Brigade Amur NRA DDA, supported by tanks third platoon attacked a "white" station Urulga. "Whites" opened heavy artillery and machine gun fire, but the appearance of tanks made a great impression on them, and they retreated in disorder. The station was used by infantry FER without loss.
Division tanks were used in combat during 1921, and on some machines the original arms was replaced by another. By year-end all "Renault" out of service due to lack of spare parts and special tools. Therefore, in December 1921 by decision of the Military Council of the FER NRA tanks have been sent for repair in Russia. Only the 2nd Platoon, "the prevailing military situation" had been left in the NRA. According to a report chief of armored units NRA "in the platoon consists of two tanks of the French type" Babe. " "Sharp" is armed with a machine gun, "Hotchkiss" cavalry with extended stock (bullets in the clip), "Sivuch" - a machine gun "Maxim". From a tool for repairing and dismantling of the French there is only one key. Spare parts not quite. "
By January 28, 1922 were repaired in just one tank - "Sharp", which is the next day departed for the front. February 9 order of the Chief of the Eastern Front DDA tank was sent by Volochayevka, where February 10 was given to individuals of the Amur regiment and sent to the skirmish line. But due to the onset of darkness and heavy machine-gun fire of white, the regiment moved into the starting position. "Vigilant" was left in the enemy's barbed wire, the next morning with the infantry to attack. At dawn on February 11 saw the white tank and opened fire with an armored train "Kappelevets" standing at the station Volochaevka. One of the shells with the armored tank broke in castor, and the car got. Another shell pierced through both sides, nearly killing the crew. After that, the driver and machine gunners abandoned tank grenades exploding gas tank. Thus ended the military service tanks Amur partisans.




Танки 1-го Амурского тяжелого танкового дивизиона. Благовещенск. 1920.
The tanks of the 1st Heavy Tank Battalion Amur. Blagoveshchensk. 1920.



Еще один рисунок тех танков. Источник: Osprey New Vanguard. Armored Units of the Russian Civil War. Red Army. David Bullock, Andrei Aksenov, Peter Sarson.



Выгружение танков в порту Владивостока
Unloaded the tanks in the port of Vladivostok


Танки НРА ДВР перед парадом. Благовещенск. 10 августа 1920.
Тanks of NRA DVR before the parade. Blagoveshchensk. August 10, 1920.









Николай
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From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 13-12-2011 06:49
 
К истории наград Народно-Революционной Армии. Вот что пишется в весьма квалифицированной биографии Блюхера.
28 декабря 1921 г. советские войска отбили наступление белых на станцию Ин, причем большую роль сыграли комиссар Петров-Тетерин и комвзвода Марков. Этот бой имел большое значение, так как являлся одним из первых удачных сражений.

За боевые отличия в Инском бою Ф.М.Петров-Тетерин и М.Марков были награждены орденами Красного Знамени. Команде бронепоезда №8 был вручен большой серебряный кубок с надписью "За удержание станции Ин в наших руках".
Душенькин В. От солдата до маршала. М., 1966. с.152


А 5 февраля 2-й полк при поддержке 3-й батареи и бронепоезда №8 занял станцию Ольгохту. На следующий день белые попытались отбить ее обратно, но после двухдневных боев были отбиты.

За самоотверженную работу главком наградил 3-ю батарею орденом Красного Знамени и серебряным кубком с надписью "За беспримерную и Лихую работу в ночь с 7 на 8 февраля 1922 года под разъездом Ольгохта".
Там же. с.159.


Интересно, откуда у Блюхера оказалось столько кубков?

Николай
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From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 14-12-2011 06:38
 
К вопросу о внешнем виде командиров НРА. Вот как описывал свой вид один из ветеранов войны на Дальнем Востоке.

Через день-два после размещения в деревне Угловой на станцию Угольную прибыл главком Народно-революционной армии И.П.Уборевич. Вскоре сюда же из Владивостока для переговоров прибыли консулы и военные атташе стран, имевших свои представительства во Владивостоке. Тут были японцы, американцы, англичане, французы, итальянцы, представители других импералистических держав.
Во время этих переговоров, происходивших в вагоне главкома Уборевича, мне вместе с другими нашими бойцами довелось бывать на Угольной. Мы гордо, как на параде, расхаживали по платформе станции на виду у этих иностранцев. Консулов, как обычно, сопровождали корреспонденты с фотоаппаратами. Мой вид и вид некоторых бойцов привлек их внимание. На мне была высоченная черная барашковая шапка с большой муаровой пятиконечной звездой и пришитой наискось красной лентой, черный полушубок, перетянутый в поясе широким ремнем, на котором висел мексиканский "кольт" в громаднейшей кобуре, шестизарядный револьвер, в барабан которого вставлялись две пластинчатые обоймы с тремя крупными патронами в каждой.
Кобура с таким револьвером, как я потом видел в кино в американском фильме, оказывается, привинчивается к седлу ковбойской лошади, я же такой тяжелый револьвер таскал на себе. В довершение всего на мне были коричневые хромовые сапоги на высоких каблуках - это тогда считалось модным. Один их моих товарищей, бывших со мной на перроне, был ростом на голову выше меня, на нем белая папаха и полушубок бело-грязного цвета. Другой товарищ был в ярко-красных галифе - должно быть, до перехода в пехоту он служил в кавалерии. Все это наше "великолепие", являвшее на себе, к тому же, следы бивуаков и костров - вплоть до прожженных желтых пятен, и привлекло внимание иностранных корреспондентов. Возможно, эти фотографии были потом помещены в иностранных журналах.


У.И.Гвозд. И на Тихом океане// За советский Дальний Восток. Владивосток, 1981. С.342

Правда, касаемо "мексиканского" кольта автор, скорее всего, путает: это явно стандартный американский М1917 - подача пластинами в нем реализована по причине применения в револьвере пистолетного патрона 45 АСР (11,43) мм, а патрон этот имеет фланец (проточку) на гильзе, которой и фиксируется в вырезах обоймы. Сам по себе пистолет не такой уж "громадный", но действительно, куда больше нагана.
Служил автор в 1-м Читинском полку 1-й Забайкальской дивизии. Это полк первым вошел в освобожденный от интервентов Владивосток, украшенный цветами от местных жителей и с ребятишками на... верблюдах. Ибо были в полку и верблюды.
Кстати. Полк автора, по его словам, имел также необычный транспорт - обозных верблюдов, отбитых у Унгерна.

Мне довелось служить в 1-м Читинском стрелковом полку, принимавшем непосредственное участие в 1921 г. в освобождении Дальнего Востока от японо-американской интервенции и белогвардейщины и первым вступившим во Владивосток 25 октября 1922 года. <...> Полк имел в своем обозе замечательный трофей, захваченный им в боях против барона Унгерна в Монголии - девять верблюдов. Эти "трофейные" животные, где бы они не появлялись вместе с обозом полка, возбуждали всеобщее внимание населения, особенно подростков и детей.

У.И.Гвозд. И на Тихом океане// За советский Дальний Восток. Владивосток, 1981. С.333-334

Правда, далеко не все в полку были одеты так, как автор. Судя по фотографиям парада во Владивостоке, большинство бойцов НРА к тому времени были одеты в типичную красноармейскую форму: шлемы, шинели, нарукавные знаки.







Обратите внимание на командира слева на втором фото. На рукаве у него нашивка стрелковых частей РККА, но без спецзнака - скрещенных винтовок. К тому же нашивка гораздо ниже, чем было положено.

Pay attention to the commander's left in the photo. On the sleeve of his insignia of the Red Army infantry units, but without special signs - crossed rifles. In addition, the stripe is much lower than was expected.

On the appearance of the commanders of the NRA. Here's how to describe my view one of the veterans of the war in the Far East.

Every a day or two after placing in the village of Angle Coal arrived at the station commander in chief of the People's Revolutionary Army I. Uborevich. Soon here is from Vladivostok to negotiate profit consuls and military attaches of countries with offices in Vladivostok. There were Japanese, Americans, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Italians, and representatives of other imperalisticheskih powers.
During these negotiations, which took place in the train commander Uborevycha, I along with our other soldiers had the opportunity to visit the coal. We are proud, as if on parade, walked along the platform in front of the station of these foreigners. Consuls, as usual, accompanied by reporters with cameras. My look and feel of certain men drew their attention. I was on the tall black sheepskin hat with a large five-pointed star and moire sewn diagonally with a red ribbon, black jacket, tied with a belt, wide belt, on which hung a Mexican "Colt" in a huge holster, six-shooter, a drum set into two MDM plate holder with three large rounds each.
The holster with the gun, as I later saw in cinema in American film, it turns out, bolted to the saddle horse cowboy, I'm such a heavy gun on himself dragged. On top I wore brown calf boots with high heels - this time it was fashionable. One of my friends who were with me on the platform, has been rising head and shoulders above me in it a white hat and white coat dirty color. Another friend was in a bright red breeches - should be, prior to joining the infantry, he served in the cavalry. All of this is our "brilliance" is in itself, moreover, traces of bivouacs and fires - down to the hard-boiled yellow spots, and attracted the attention of foreign correspondents. Perhaps these pictures were then placed in foreign journals.


U.I.Gvozd. And near the Pacific Ocean // During the Soviet Far East. Vladivostok, 1981. s.342

Author served in the 1st Regiment Chita 1st Division Transbaikal. This regiment was the first to enter liberated from the invaders, Vladivostok, decorated with flowers from local residents and with the kids on ... camels. For they were in the regiment, and camels.
By the way. Polk's, he said, also had an unusual transport - denote the camels, captured from Ungern.


I had a chance to serve in the 1st Rifle Regiment Chita, taking a direct part in the 1921 release of the Far East from the Japanese-American intervention and the White Guards and first came to Vladivostok. October 25, 1922. <...> Polk had a wonderful trophy carts, captured them in battle against Baron Ungern in Mongolia - nine camels. These "trophy" animals, no matter where they appear together with the baggage shelf, aroused widespread attention of the population, especially children and adolescents.

U.I.Gvozd. And near the Pacific Ocean // During the Soviet Far East. Vladivostok, 1981. s.333-334

Николай
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From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 24-12-2011 00:47
 
Попалось подробнейшие воспоминания, описывающие внешний вид партизан Дальнего Востока. Автор - дальневосточный чекист Д.Г.Федичкин, который сам партизанил в 1921 г. под Владивостоком.

Разные были у нас люди. Иные познали запах пороха еще не германском фронте с четырнадцатого года и имели солидный партизанский стаж со времен Колчака. Встречались и бывшие беляки, познавшие на горьком опыте, чего стоят враги Советской власти. Запомнился мне один немолодой казак, фамилии не помню, звали мы его Ерофеич, он годился мне в отцы. Это был степенный мужик с усищами, носил изрядно поношенную шинельку, подпоясанную красным матерчатым поясом, и старый артиллерийский картуз с царской кокардой времен русско-японской войны. Ерофеич был человек хмурый, молчаливый, не выпускал изо рта самокрутку. Махорка попадала к нам не так уж часто, и, чтобы растянуть курево, он добавлял тужа сушеные листья.

Федичкин Д.Г. Ответственное задание. Владивосток, 1986. С.86.

Одеты мы были плохо - ни валенок, ни рукавиц. Редко кому достался полушубок. Носили папахи, заячьи треухи, шапки, кепки, некоторые кутались в башлыки, обвязывались шарфами, платками. У меня была обгоревшая и почерневшая папаха. На шее вафельное полотенце - да, все то же вафельное полотенце, сопровождавшее меня долгие месяцы в странствиях по партизанским тропам. Была на мне короткая шинель цвета хаки - подарок американцев русской армии Керенского. Заокеанские дельцы не очень заботились о том, чтобы русскому солдату было тепло в этой шинели, и материал для них готовили жидкий - из шерстяных очесов и тексительного утиля. Была у меня еще безрукавка из овечьей шкуры. Шерсть на ней за давностью лет истерлась. Носил я, как, впрочем, и другие партизаны, своеобразную обувь. Головки из невыделанной телячьей кожи, вместо голенищ холщовые онучи с обвязками самодельного производства, портянки из домотканного холста. Я знал, конечно, что существуют на свете носки - простые, шерстяные, видел их, но никогда не носил. Ноги в какой-то мере утепляла болотная трава, которую, по совету партизан-китайцев, мы подкладывали в головки и обвертывали вокруг стопы.
Гордостью моей были брюки галифе, кстати, тоже собственноручного производства. Сшил я их лично из обрезков американской шинели в дни своего комиссарства в деревне Андреевке.
История этих брюк типична для тогдашнего партизанского быта. Осенью двадцать первого года нашей батарее выдали несколько полушубков. Мы решили разыграть эти вещи между сорока бойцами. Тот, кто имел шинель, ватную телогрейку или какую-нибудь другую верхнюю одежонку и выигрывал полушубок, обязан был свою шинель, ватник или другую верхнюю теплую одежду сдать тем, кому счастье в лотерее не улыбнулось. Я, как и многие другие, вытащил пустой номер, и мне достались чужие обноски - изрядно поношенная заокеанская шинель.
Шинель была длинная, до щиколоток, и меня осенила мысль укоротить ее, сделать "модной" - до колен, а из обрезков сшить брюки. Обязательно галифе. Комиссар без галифе - какой же это комиссар!
Я приступил к работе. И тут же меня постигло горькое разочарование. Выкраивалась лишь одна штанина - и та не совсем полноценная, чуть ниже колен. Но одна штанина, как известно, еще не брюки. Нужно было по крайней мере раздобыть такие же обрезки с другой шинели. А где ее взять? Пришлось идти на обменную операцию. Партнер для обмена в батарее нашелся. Ему приглянулись мои видавшие виды брюки, и впридачу он получил кусок бязи, из которой квартирная хозяйка обещала ему сшить пару нательного белья.
Оставалось раздобыть швейную машинку. "Зингер" нашлась у тетки Матрены, где я стоял на квартире. Брюки я сшил по всем правилам портновского искусства и сразу же получил несколько заказов, за короткое время сшил моим товарищам бойцам еще трое брюк.
Заговорил о брюках и вспомнились мне записки одного из командиров Народно-революционной армии, позднее Маршала Советского Союза, Николая Ивановича Крылова. "25 октября 1922 года, в день освобождения Дальнего Востока от белогвардейцев и интервентов, красные захватили склад с обмундированием... Мне достались шерстяные брюки английского происхождения, - писал маршал, - и я наконец расстался со своими прежними штанами - хитроумным сооружением со множеством швов, скреплявшими квадратики выцветшего брезента. Не всякий догадался бы, что эти штаны сшиты из сумок для гранат".
Читая эти строки, я подумал, что мои галифе из материала укороченных американских шинелей были все же элегантнее одежды маршала в его юные годы.

Федичкин Д.Г. Ответственное задание. Владивосток, 1986. С.91-92.

Автору, кстати, было тогда 19 лет.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 20-03-2012 12:53
 


Командование Забайкальской группы войск. Посередине в первом ряду известный красный казак Н.Д.Томин.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 11-04-2012 01:55
 
Вот, кстати, и иллюстрации к истории о верблюдах 1-го Читинского полка.





Это фото уже есть на форуме.



В историко-биографическом альманахе серии ЖЗЛ "Прометей" (т.4, 1967) это фото подписано как: "Бойцы 11-го и 12-го полков Народно-революционной армии. Дальний Восток. 1921 год". А в книге А.А.Мюллера "В пламени революции (Иркутск, 1959) - как "Бойцы 1-й бригады 2-й Иркутской дивизии".
В оригинальный пост будут добавлены соответствующие изменения.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 28-04-2012 18:06
 
Июль 1920 г.

Спешившись, мы прошли в ограду, где на крыльце нас встретила японская делегация во главе с полковником Като. Члены японской делегации были в офицерской форме со всеми знаками отличия, у полковника Като даже кривая сабля на пояске. Мы все были одеты в новые гимнастерки, лишь тов.Лондо был одет в серый бушлат, а на мне была черная шинель. Никаких знаков различия у нас тогда не существовало. Оружие было только у сопровождавшей нас охраны.
...наша охрана была вооружена японскими карабинами, и на бойцах были одеты японские мундиры.


Вологдин П.В. Переговоры в Алеуре с японцами о перемирии//Красногвардейцы и партизаны. Сб. воспоминаний. Чита, 1957. С.100, 102-103.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 30-04-2012 16:39
 


Trans-Baikal Regional Office in the period of the Far Eastern Republic in 1921 - 1922 years. (from left to right) in the 1st row: Ephraim Dmitrievich Malyshev, Efron Sheds, in the 2nd row: Sergei Danilovich Belokopytov, Andrew Afanasievich Borobov, Nazar E. Broad (Chairman), Alexander Lonshakov, Andrey Komogortsev, in 3rd row: Bakharev (not a member, only the head of the department), Pyotr Kuzmich Nomokonov, Innocent Leskov (Deputy Secretary), Alexander Knyazev, Fedorov (state controller area), Andrei Antonov Blinnikov (vice chairman), Stepan Sidorovich Kirgiz (Deputy Chairman), Michael A. Kuklin (executive secretary). Photo 1921.

Николай
Registered User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1514

 PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF FAR EAST. 1920-22
Sent: 30-06-2012 17:06
 


Занятие политинструкторов Народной-Революционной армии на ст.Могзон



Отправка частей Народно-революционной армии на фронт под Читу

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