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Forum » Russian Civil war / Гражданская война в России » Thread: The Birth of the Polish Army in the Era of the Second Republic -- Page 1  Jump To: 

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 The Birth of the Polish Army in the Era of the Second Republic
Sent: 23-04-2012 02:27
The Birth of the Polish Army in the Era of the Second Republic, Part 1.

This is chapter III (pages 227-385), part 1, (pages 227-233) from ZARYS DZIEJÓW WOJSKOWOŚCI POLSKIEJ 1864-1939 - (A Short History on the Polish Army 1864-1939), published by Wojskowy Instytut Historyczny, Redaktor Piotr Stawecki, Warsawa 1990 and here Mieczyslaw Wrzosek on pages 227-233 descibes the sources for the following texts. Newer works on several of the subjects here have been published since 1990, but still the mentioned works give a good foundation for further studies. One has to remember that studies of the Second Republic and its army really was not a subject, which the communist system encouraged. Even today many Poles of the younger generations do not know much or anything abot, what happened in 1918-1921, as nothing was told in the schools.
Several of the mentioned books and articles can be found for download on the internet, which also is an invaluable and easy source for information on the period.
The language is a problem for non-Polish readers? Certainly, but with a little help form Google and a dictionary, for instance a Polish internet dictionary like Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN on http://sjp.pwn.pl/szukaj/wykonan%C4%85 is readable.
Perhaps there are other useful translation tools and in such case it would be nice to hear about perhaps some useful Polish translation programs for sale. In many ways the Google translations are certainly rather „special” and it seems, it has no great haste for Google to make their translations a little better.
Over time the literature list here will be enlarged with titles, I myself has found useful.

by Mieczyslaw Wrzosek
(pages 227-233)
The history of the Polish Army's development in the years 1918-1921, when it was still not yet subordinated the Polish state, is not yet fully researched, although in the last years our history has been rewarded with several valuable studies on the subject.
Among the best studies are without doubt the publication in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the revived Polish Army: Dziesięciolecie Odrodzenia Polskiej Siły Zbrojnej 1918—1928, Warszawa 1928 - A Decade after the Birth of the Polish Armed Forces 1918-1928, Warsaw 1928), specifically a large part of this fundamental publication, prepared by Adam Przybylski, is treating the armed conflicts involving the state and the Polish community. The study, covers the basic issues around the organization of the army, as well as the essential matters of contemporary armed conflicts. Used in our historiography is also as an independent study by the same author: Wojna Polska 1918—1927, Warszawa 1930 (Polish Wars 1918 -1927, Warsaw, 1930). Both these studies include the basic findings of Przybylski on the raising of the Polish Army, the personnel issues, methods on and results of the development of organizational structures, the participation in armed conflicts with Czechoslovakia, the two Ukrainian states, Soviet Russia and Lithuania, as well as military events like the Wielkopolska Uprising and the three Silesian Uprisings. The works on these issues are concise and still so accurate, they still have not lost their core values, both in the factual findings as in their evaluations. As a synthese, but extremely valuable, the publication also present the relevant chapters from Księgi Chwały Piechoty, Warszawa 1937—1939 (The Book on the Glorious Infantry, Warsaw, 1937-1939. Reprint by Bellona 19 ). This collective work outlines the organizational developments relating to the development in the infantry organization, which was, as it is known, the main weapon branch in the Polish Armed Forces. The discussion on organizational issues are related to the regimental structure of the infantry and the above level. The findings in this regard, taking into account the basic assertions on matters of weapons and training, supplemented by further pedigree and numbers of the individual regiments, present a very valuable and very total useful source for our research.
In a similar way, though not as valuable, also deserves to be mentioned a collective study on the formations of the cavalry Księga Jazdy Polskiej, Warszawa 1938 (The Book on the Polish Cavalry, Warsaw 1938), supplemented by the pedigrees and numbers on the cavalry regiments. The best work concerning the development of major issues around equipment and supplies is probably the jubilee work Dziesięciolecie Intendentury Polskiej Siły Zbrojnej 1918—1928, Warszawa 1929 (The Ten Years Jubilee of the Commissariat of the Polish Armed Forces 1918-1928, Warsaw 1929). An extremely valuable source of factual findings proving to be a well researched study on the Army's development made by a team in the pre-war Central Military Archives, and appeared as an index on the military authorities, and gives, in essence a conscientious access to the inventories of records produced in 1918-1921 by the units in the then Polish Army. Included in the index are established facts, based on archival materials, which were damaged in different ways, often unique in nature and today representing an irreplaceable source of information. Very useful, especially in investigations concerning the numbers and names of military units of various weapon branches and detachments, was also the printed notes, made by Major Boleslaw Waligora: Spis Byłych Oddziałów Wojska Polskiego, Warszawa 1935 (Index of Former Units in the Polish Army, Warsaw, 1935). It was especially used in the research on large and medium renamed units and also smaller units in rear areas. Very useful was also the study of Kazimierz Bara Wstęp do: Inwentarze zespołów akt szkół wojskowych, cz.I (Introduction to: Studies on the Material on Military Schools, vol. I.), released by the Central Military Archives as a manuscript and providing a full list of officers and NCO schools in the period that is of interest to us, namely 1918 -1921. Also used, as far as possible and when needed, are the abundant detailed studies of historiography, namely, those studies which relate to the background of the political and socioeconomic development of military events, especially the pure military. On matters concerning the peace treaties that culminated at the ending of the First World War and on matters related to the creation of a new Europe of national states, including the Polish state, have proved particularly useful the collective works of the Institute of History with the Polish Academy of Science Historia Polski, t. IV, cz. 1 (Polish History, tome.IV, Part.1, Warsaw 1969), mostly written by Dr. Tadeusz Jędrliszak and Henryk Zielinski, further the book of Jan Dabrowski Wielka Wojna 1914—1918, Warszawa 1937 (The Great War of 1914-1918, Warsaw 1937), Wieslaw Balcerak Powstanie państw narodowych w Europie środkowo-wschodniej, Warszawa 1974 (The Uprisings in the Nationial States in Central and Eastern Europe, Warsaw, 1974), a study by Soviet authors Historia najnowsza krajów Europy Zachodniej i Ameryki 1918—1939 (Recent history of Western Europe and America 1918-1939, translated from Russian, Warsaw, 1965), Piotr Łossowski Stosunki polsko-litewskie w latach 1918—1920, Warszawa 1966 (Polish-Lithuanian Relations in the Years 1918-1920, Warsaw 1966), Jan Wąsicki Rzesza a kraje niemieckie, 1914—1949, Poznań 1977 (The Reich and the German Ländern, 1914-1949, Poznan 1977). Descriptions of events connected with the history of foreign intervention and civil war in Russia is based primarily on the book by Romuald: Wojny. W ogniu rosyjskiej wojny wewnętrznej 1918—1920, Warszawa 1975 (War. In the Fire of the Russian Civil War 1918-1920, Warszawa 1975), and on matters relating to the so-called Versailles and Washington Treaties the text includes valuable material from Kasimir Ducha Kwestia Pacyfiku i Konferencja Waszyngtońska, „Bellona" 1922, z. I (The issue of the Pacific and The Washington Conference, "Bellona, " 1922, Vol. I). Portions of the chapter III center on the development of the Polish state, the disarming of the German occupation troops in the former Polish Kingdom and the internal affairs of the Polish state, are based on the findings of the previously mentioned studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and Czeslaw Gorski Wypadki listopadowe 1918 r. w Międzyrzecu, „Niepodległość" 1932, t. V (The Incidents in Międzyrzec November 1918, "Independence"1932, Vol V), and the books by Marian Seydy Polska na przełomie dziejów, t. II, Poznań—Warszawa—Wilno—Lublin 1931 (Poland at the turn of history, Volume II, Poznan-Warsaw-Vilnius-Lublin, 1931), Andrzej Ajnenkiel Parlamentaryzm II Rzeczypospolitej, Warszawa 1975 (Parliamentarism in the Second Republic, Warsaw, 1975) and Marian Marek Drozdowski Ignacy Jan Paderewski, zarys biografii politycznej, Warszawa 1981 (Ignacy Jan Paderewski, The Outline of a Political Biography, Warsaw, 1981). When discussing issues relating to the rising Polish-Soviet and Polish-Lithuanian conflicts the text benefited from the papers and articles by such authors as: Alexei Deruga Polityka wschodnia Polski wobec ziem Litwy, Białorusi i Ukrainy, 1918—1919, Warszawa 1969 (Polish Eastern policy towards the lands of Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, 1918-1919, Warsaw, 1969, Inicjatywa Lenina w sprawie uregulowania stosunków z Polską na przełomie lat 1918—1919, „Dzieje Najnowsze" 1970, nr 2 (Lenin's initiative on regulating relations with the Polish at the turn of 1918-1919, "Recent History" 1970, No. 2), Jaroslaw Jurkiewicz Niektóre problemy stosunków polsko-radzieckich w okresie międzywojennym 1918—1939, „Z dziejów stosunków polsko-radzieckich", t. II, Warszawa 1966 (Some problems of Polish-Soviet relations in the period 1918-1939, "History of Polish-Soviet Relations", t. II, Warszawa 1966 ), Peter Łossowski Stosunki polsko-litewskie... (Polish-Lithuanian Relations ...) and Joseph Smolenski Walki polsko-litewskie na Suwalszczyźnie we wrześniu 1920 r., Warszawa 1938 (Polish-Lithuanian Fighting in the Suwalki region in September 1920, Warsaw 1938) and Valentina Najdus Polacy w Rewolucji 1917 roku, Warszawa 1967 (Poles in the 1917 Revolution, Warsaw, 1967). Concerning the rising conflicts between the Polish-Germans and the development in the relations in 1919 is primarily used Peter Łossowski Między wojną a pokojem. Niemieckie zamysły wojenne na wschodzie wobec traktatu wersalskiego, marzec—czerwiec 1919 roku, Warszawa 1976 (Between War and Peace. German War Plans in the East up to the Treaty of Versailles, March-June 1919, Warsaw 1976) and a valuable book by Anton Czubinski Rewolucja 1918—1919 w Niemczech, Poznań 1967 (The 1918-1919 Revolution in Germany, Poznan 1967).
The considerations on the Polish art of war in this chapter takes into account the views of Jozef Pilsudski Rok 1920, Warszawa 1924 (Year 1920, Warsaw, 1924) and Michael Tukhachevsky Pochód za Wisłę (March across the Vistula, translation published in the cited book by Pilsudski). Also taken into account are the views of the author Stanislaw Septycki Front Litewsko-Białoruski. 10 marca 1919 — 30 lipca 1920, Kraków 1925 (Lithuanian-Byelorussian Front. March 10, 1919 - July 30, 1920, Krakow 1925) and Francis Skibinski Rozważania o sztuce wojennej, Warszawa 1972 (Reflections on the Art of War, Warsaw 1972), benefiting from the findings of Stanisław Fereta Polska sztuka wojenna 1918—1939, Warszawa 1972 (Polish Art of War 1918 - 1939, Warsaw 1972), and all guided by our own thoughts, however, inspired by these theorists and authors. Material basis for the findings regarding the role of the army in the state are accounted for in works of eminent contemporary personalities, the text of the normative documents, taken from a set of military regulations Polskie Ustawodawstwo Wojskowe (Polish Military Legislation, edited by M. Buszyński and B. Matzner, Vol. I, Warszawa 1930); also Dziennik Praw Królestwa Polskiego (Journal on Fundamental Rights of the Polish Kingdom), or the study in the already quoted book by Marian Seydy.
On budgetary matters and financial expenditure on the army the monograph by Kazimierz Krzyzanowski Wydatki wojskowe Polski w latach 1918—1939, Warszawa 1976 (Polish Military Expenditures 1918-1939, Warsaw 1976) proved to be most helpful together with an anonymous report on the economics of the military O gospodarce wojskowej, „Bellona", 1921, z. 2 (The Military Economy, "Bellona", 1921, vol. 2)."
The relations between the supreme and territorial military authorities are reconstructed on basis of monographs and articles published by Edward Barszcz Polska Siła Zbrojna, Warszawa 1974 (Polish Armed Forces, Warsaw 1974, a manuscript in the collections of the Military Historical Institute), Vladimir Gierowski Królewsko-Polska Komisja Wojskowa, „Niepodległość" 1931 t. IV (Royal-Polish Military Commission, "Independence" 1931 Vol IV) Adam Przybylski (already quoted with Wojna polska... (Polish War ...), Marian Kukiel Wskrzeszenie Wojska Polskiego, „Bellona", Londyn 1959, z. 4 (Resurrection of the Polish Army, "Bellona", London 1959, z. 4). Very helpful was also a monograph by Anthony Czubinski, Zdzislaw Grot and Benon Miskiewicz Powstanie wielkopolskie 1918—1919. Zarys dziejów, Warszawa 1978 (Wielkopolska Uprising 1918-1919. Outline of History, Warsaw, 1978). But is particularly rich material can be found in the already mentioned Spisie Władz Wojskowych (Index of Military Authorities). Among researches into the sizes of the Polish Armies is the comprehensive monograph by Joseph Kukułki most valuable. The author quotes from a document of 24 May 1920 containing information on the numbers of officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, when the Polish armed forces were beginning to reach the peak in its development during the period that interests us. The material which is the basis for a analytical study of the fixed and variable cadres of the Polish Army, is taken from the book by Piotr Stawecki Polityka wojskowa Polski 1921—1926, Warszawa 1981, Problem weryfikacji stopni oficerskich w latach 1920—1921, „Studia Historyczne" Wojskowej Akademii Politycznej, Warszawa 1967 (Polish Military Policy 1921-1926, Warsaw 1981) and Boleslaw Woszczyński's article Problem weryfikacji stopni oficerskich w latach 1920—1921, „Studia Historyczne" Wojskowej Akademii Politycznej, Warszawa 1967 (The problem with verification of the numbers of officers in 1920-1921, "Historical Studies" Military Academy of Policy, Warsaw, 1967). Putting light on matters concerning military education of NCOs got paramount considerations by Wenceslas Tokarz in Szkoła podoficerska piechoty WP w Ostrowiu Łomżyńskim, „Bellona" 1919, z. 1 (Schools of the WP Infantry NCOs in Ostrow Lomza, "Bellona", 1919, vol. 1), while on matters relating to the development of the officers and NCOs education, the already mentioned study by Casimir Bara has proved very useful. The analysis of the curriculum in the Military Academy is based on the article by J. Szydłowski Polski Sztab Generalny, „Bellona" styczeń 1919, z. 1 (Polish General Staff, "Bellona" in January 1919, vol. 1) and is a valuable complement to the material relating to military training, finally used is a chapter written by Marian Porwitaw in Księdze Chwały Piechoty, entitled: Rozwój myśli taktycznej w Polsce niepodległej (The Development of tactical Thinking in independent Poland). Considerable difficulties emerged when examining issues related to weapons and equipment of the Polish Army. However it was managed to be overcome thanks to the studies in the books by Alfred Fliederbaum: Organizacja armii, Warszawa 1919 (Organization of the Army, Warsaw, 1919), Boleslaw Woszczyński: Ministerstwo Spraw Wojskowych... (Ministry of Military Affairs ...), Joseph Kukułki (already mentioned previously) and the observation of Hugh Zieliński in Księdze Chwały Piechoty, in addition articles by Mieczyslaw Wrzoska and Krzysztof Sandomierski Transport do kraju sprzętu wojennego przyznanego Polsce przez Wielką Brytanię w 1920 r., „Przegląd Historyczny" 1962, nr 2 (Military Transport Equipment granted by Britain in 1920 to Poland,, "Historical Review" 1962, No. 2) and Rudolf Sieradz Uzbrojenie piechoty polskiej w kampanii wrześniowej 1939 r., „Przegląd Techniczny" 1979, nr 35 (Polish Infantry Equipment in the campaign of September 1939, "Technical Review" 1979, No. 35). However on matters relating to the history of the Pinsk Flotilla and the Wisla Flotilla the excellent book by Jan Bartlewicz simply was irreplaceable: Flotylla pińska i jej udział w wojnie polsko-sowieckiej 1918—1920, Warszawa 1933 (The Pinsk Flotilla and its participation in the Polish-Soviet War, 1918-1920, Warsaw 1933). Another useful finding on the Vistula Flotilla is an anonymous article in "Wiarusie" published 7 September 1920, No 43). Among the best publications on the military actions certainly stands out those already mentioned studies by Adam Przybylski. The author presents in a transparent, well-balanced and fairly comprehensive style the Polish military overall effort in 1918-1921. He covers the Polish-Ukrainian military events, all phases of the Polish-Soviet war and the clashes between Polish-Lithuanians and also the course of the Wielkopolska Uprising, the three Silesian uprisings and the Polish-Czechoslovak conflict about the Czech-Silesia (Śląsk Cieszyń), Orava and Spis. All specified conflicts were reflected also in the popular version Dziejów oręża polskiego, Warszawa 1973 ( Actions of the Polish Army. Warszawa 1973). (Cieszyn Silesia or Těšín Silesia or Teschen Silesia (Polish: Śląsk Cieszyński, Czech: Těšínské Slezsko or Těšínsko, German: Teschener Schlesien) is a historical region in south-eastern Silesia, centered around the towns of Cieszyn and Český Těšín and bisected by the Olza River. Since 1920 it has been divided between Poland and Czechoslovakia, and later the Czech Republic. It covers an area of about 2,280 square kilometres (880 sq.mi.) and has about 810,000 inhabitants. From Wikipedia).
When preparing to write this book it showed impossible to compile from the abundant material the history of Polish-Soviet conflict. The works, which were most useful, were the books by Józefa Piłsudski: Rok 1920 (Year 1920), Stanislaw Szeptycki: Front Litewsko-Białoruski, Kraków 1925 (The Lithuanian-Belarusian Front), Krakow 1925), Lucjan Żeligowski: Wojna w roku 1920, Wspomnienia i rozważania, Warszawa 1930 (The War in 1920, Memories and Considerations, Warsaw, 1930), Władysław Sikorski Nad Wisłą i Wkrą. Studium z polsko-rosyjskiej wojny, Lwów-Warszawa 1928 (Over Vistula and Wkra. A Study of the Polish-Russian War, Lvov-Warsaw 1928. Can be downloaded from http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/dlibra/publication?id=119377&tab=3 ), Tadeusz Kutrzeby Bitwa nad Niemnem - wrzesień-październik 1920, Warszawa 1926 (The Battle of Niemen - September-October 1920, Warsaw, 1926) and Boleslaw Zawadzk: System obronny w 1920 r., Warszawa 1926 (The Defensive System in 1920, Warsaw, 1926). Soviet studies deserves special attention, the work of Tukhachevsky needs in addition to a thorough reading first of all considerable objections, the objective works by Witold Putny: К Висле и обратно, Москва, 1927 (To Vistula and back, Moscow, 1927), В. Сергеев: От Двины к Висле. Очерк операции 6 армии Западного фронта в июле и первой половине августа 1920 года, Смоленск, 1923 (V.Sergeev - From Dvina to Vistula. A Sketch of the Operations of the IV Army on the Western Front in July and First Half of August, 1920, Smolensk, 1923) and Борис Шапошников: На Висле. К истории кампании 1920 года, Москва, 1924 - (Boris Shaposhnikov, To Vistula. A History of the 1920 Campaign, Moscow, 1924), and especially the extensive and probing works of Н.Е. Какурин и В.А. Меликов: Война с белополяками 1920 год, Москва, 1925 (N.E.Kakurin and V.A.Melikov (War with the White Poles) 1920, Moscow, 1925). Many valuable informations are also provided by Gay in: Гай Гай На Варшаву! Действия 3 Конного корпуса на Западном фронте. Июль – август 1920 года. [/i]Москва – Ленинград, 1928 (Gаy Gаy: To Warsaw! The Actions of 3rd Cavalry Army on the Western front. July - August, 1920. Moscow - Leningrad, 1928), especially useful is it, when confronted with the critical study of Stanislaus Żukowski: Działania 3 konnego korpusu Gaja, Warszawa 1934 (Actions of Gajas 3rd Cavalry Corps, Warsaw 1934). Also proved to be valuable were the Soviet source publications, especially the Директивы командования фронтов Красной Армии (1917 – 1922 год), сборник документов, том 2 и 3, Москва, 1972 (Instructions from the Front Command of the Red Army (1917 - 1922), Collection of Documents, Vol. 2 and 3, Moscow, 1972).
In view of the almost total lack of sufficiently comprehensive penetrating studies these texts had to be done on fragmentary studies. These are the papers and articles used: Stanislaw Brochack Przedarcie się Polaków z Litwy do Korony, Wilno 1920 (Tearing the Poles from Lithuania to the Crown, Vilnius, 1920), Witold Sopock: W15-tą rocznicę Samoobrony Ziemi Grodzieńskiej, „Polska Zbrojna" 1933, nr 328 (On the 15th anniversary of the Defense of the Grodno Area, "Polish Military" 1933, No. 328), Wladyslaw Wejt Samoobrona Litwy i Białorusi, Wilno 1930 (Defence of Lithuania and Belarus, Vilnius, 1930), Hanna Záhorská Dzieje Polskiej Organizacji Wojskowej na Białej Rusi, „Kurier Poranny" 1922, nr 157 (History of the Polish Military Organization in White Russia, "Morning Courier" 1922, No. 157), George Grobick: Zajęcie Brześcia Litewskiego w lutym 1919 i poprzedzające je wypadki na Polesiu, „Bellona" 1932, t. XXXIX, maja-czerwiec (The Occupation of Brest-Litovsk in February 1919 and the Precedings to these Events in Polesie, "Bellona", 1932, t . XXXIX, May-June), Adam Przybylski Dzia­łania wstępne w wojnie polsko-rosyjskiej 1918—1920, Warszawa 1928 (Preparatory actions to the Polish-Russian War, 1918-1920, Warsaw 1928), Casimir Iranka-Osmecki: Wyprawa na Poryck i Torczyn, Warszawa 1930 (The Expedition to Poryck and Torczyn, Warsaw, 1930), Thaddeus P iskora: Wyprawa wileńska, Warszawa 1919 (The Expedition to Vilnius, Warsaw, 1919 ), Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski: Trzy wyprawy, Lwów 1930 (Three Expeditions, Lviv 1930) and Alfred Fliederbaum: Charakter walk na froncie litewsko-białoruskim na wiosnę 1919 r., „Bellona" 1919, t. II) (The Nature of the Fightings on the Lithuanian-Belarus Front in the Spring of 1919, "Bellona", 1919, Vol II).
For the descriptions of the military actions in 1919 and the first months of 1920 have been used in addition to the already mentioned studies covering longer periods and events, the books by Waclaw Lipinski: Od Wilna po Dyneburg, Warszawa 1930 (From Vilnius to Dünaburg, Warsaw, 1930) and Jan Ciałowicz: Manewr na Mozyrz i Kalinkowicze, Warszawa 1925 (Maneuvres on Mozyrz and Kalinkowicze, Warsaw, 1925) - (Kalinkowicze is located beside the Pripyat River, opposite the town of Mazyr – Mozyrz.pl , and is the site of one of Belarus's most important railway junctions. ts)
Useful on the spring events has proved for the military development the work by Julian Stachiewicz: Manewr na Żytomierz w kwietniu 1920 r., „Bellona" 1924, t. XIII, z. 2 (Maneuvers towards Zhytomyr in April 1920, "Bellona," 1924, Vol XIII, No 2) and Działania zaczepne 3 armii na Ukrainie, Warszawa 1925 (The offensive Military Actions of the 3rd Army in Ukraine, Warsaw, 1925), and also the articles by Tadeusz Piskor: Działania dywizji kawalerii na Ukrainie od 20IV do 20 VI 1920 r., Warszawa 1926 (Actions of the Cavalry Divisions in Ukraine from 20. May to 20. June 1920, Warsaw 1926) and Adam Przybylski: Działania 1 DPleg. na Ukrainie 1920 r., „Bellona" 1924, t. XIII, z. 3; 1924, t. XIV, z. 1-2 (Actions of the 1st Legionair Infantry Division in Ukraine 1920, "Bellona," 1924, Volume XIII, z. 3, 1924, Vol XIV, the . 1-2).
Description of the events, in the crucial period that began with the retreating Polish troops in Ukraine and culminating in the August victory, is based on the books by Francis Adam Arciszewski: Ostróg—Dubno—Brody. Walki 18 DP z konnicą Budionnego. 1 VII — 6 VIII 1920, Warszawa 1923 (Ostróg-Dubno-Brody: The fightings of 18th Infantry Division with Budyonny's Cavalry. 1 July - 6 August 1920, Warsaw, 1923), Stanislaw Borovets: Nad Bugiem, Warszawa 1925 (To Bug, Warsaw 1925), C. Amon: Zwycięski manewr marszałka Piłsudskiego przeciw bolszewikom w 1920 r., Warszawa 1930 (The winning Maneuvers of Marshal Piłsudski against the Bolsheviks in 1920, Warsaw, 1930), Jerzy Dabrowski: Bój odwrotowy nad Niemnem i Rosią 1 dywizji litewsko-białoruskiej 21—25 VII 1920, Warszawa 1933 (The Counter Attacks of 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Division at Niemen and in Russia 1921-1925 July 1920, Warsaw, 1933), Felix Liberta: Upadek Brześcia, Warszawa 1936 (The Fall of Brest, Warsaw, 1936), Mariana Kukiel Bitwa pod Wołoczyskami 11—24 lipca 1920, Warszawa 1923 (The Battle of Wołoczyskami 11-24 July 1920, Warsaw, 1923), Stanislaw Rutkowski: Obrona Kijowa, Warszawa 1932 (Defense of Kiev, Warsaw, 1932), Zygmunt Szyszko-Bohusz: Działania wojenne nad dolną Wisłą w 1920 r., Warszawa 1931 (Military Actions at the Lower Vistula in 1920, Warsaw 1931) and Boleslaw Waligora: Bój na przedmościu Warszawy w sierpniu 1920 r. (Fightings in the suburbs of Warsaw in August 1920). Among the Soviet works, in addition to those already mentioned, is to recommend the noteworthy work of Boris Shaposznikov: Борис Шапошников. Варшавская операция – конспект, Москва, 1933 (The Warsaw Operation - Abstract, Moscow, 1933). Also used are dozens of articles published in "Belloni" by Stanislaw Bartlitza, Tadeusz Liebchen-Bobrownicki, Nicholas Bollucia, Adam Borkiewicz, Louis Faury, Marian Kukiel, Joseph Moszczeński, Edward Perkowicza, Stanislaw Rutkowski, Boleslaw Waligora, Jozef Zajac and Boleslaw Zawadzki.
Polish armed confrontation together with tactics against Budyonnys 1st Cavalry Army and the events on the South Wing of the front has been written about in the studies of Henryk Berezovsky: Bitwa pod Komorowem Przegląd Kawaleryjski, 1934, nr 1 (The Battle of Komarów in "Cavalry Review" 1934, No. 1 and Mieczysław Biernacki: Działania armii konnej Budionnego w kampanii polsko-rosyjskiej 1920 roku, Warszawa 1924 (The Actions of Budyonnys Cavalry Army in the Polish-Russian Campaign, 1920, Warsaw 1924), the great battle on Niemen is covered by using the books of Peter Demkowski: Bój pod Wołkowyskiem, Warszawa 1924 (Fightings at Volkovysk, Warsaw, 1924), Stanislaw Kozicki: Bój pod Lidą, Warszawa 1930 (Fightings at Lida, Warsaw, 1930), John Sadowski Bój pod Brzostowicami, Warszawa 1928 (Fightings at Brzostowicami, Warsaw, 1928), and especially Tadeusz Kutrzeby: Bitwa nad Niemnem, wrzesień—październik 1920 r., Warszawa 1926 (Battle of Niemen, September-October 1920, Warsaw, 1926).
Separately are also worth mentioning two particularly valuable publications. Namely Stefan Pomarański: Pierwsza wojna polsko-litewska 1918—1920. Zbiór komunikatów, Warszawa 1921 (The first Polish-Lithuanian War 1918-1920. A Collection of Messages, Warsaw, 1921) having the nature of source and digest in the first volume with material on the crucial events of 1920, published by the Bureau of Military History: Bitwa warszawska, t. I, Bitwa nad Bugiem 27 VII — 7 VIII 1920, cz. I, Warszawa 1933, Warszawa 1935 (Battle of Warsaw, Vol I, The Battle on the Bug 27 Jul - 7 Aug 1920, vol. I, Warsaw 1933, Warsaw 1935).
The fightings in the Polish-Ukrainian armed conflict is written about on the basis of materials taken from the already mentioned sources, the books by Adam Przybylski: Wojna polska... (Polish War ...), as well as the work of Witold Huperta: Zajęcie Małopolski Wschodniej i Wołynia 1919 r., Lwów-Warszawa 1928 (Occupation of Eastern Galicia and Volhynia, 1919, Lviv-Warsaw 1928), Stanislaw Lapinski and Ludwika Króla: Listopad we Lwowie, Poznań 1920 (November in Lvov, Poznan 1920), Czeslaw Maczynski: Boje lwowskie, Warszawa 1921 (The Fightings at Lvov, Warsaw, 1921), Stanislaw Rutkowski: Geneza i przebieg odsieczy Lwowa, Lwów 1926 (The Origin and Course of the Siege of Lviv, Lviv, 1926) and Sopotnicki Joseph: Kampania polsko-ukraińska, Lwów 1921 (The Polish-Ukrainian Campaign, Lviv 1921). The findings in these studies are confronted with observations in Ukrainian publications. It proved most useful to study O. Terleck История Украины от 1917 года до наших дней, Львов, 1936 (History of Ukraine from 1917 up to now, Lvov, 1936) and Ivan Kripiakiewicz and Bohdan Gnatewicz: История украинской армии, Львов, 1936 (History of the Ukrainian army, Lvov, 1936). Principal findings in the Polish and Ukrainian literature proved to be convergent. In relation to the Polish-Lithuanian armed conflict a helpful book has been Zdzislaw Budecki: Stosunki polsko-litewskie po wojnie światowej 1918—1928, Warszawa 1928 (Polish-Lithuanian relations after the World War 1918-1928, Warsaw 1928), Peter Łossowsk: Stosunki polsko-litewskie .... (Polish-Lithuanian relations ...), and especially the previously mentioned detailed monograph by Joseph Smolensky: Walki polsko-litewskie... (Polish-Lithuanian Fightings ...) is valuable. Matters relating to the conduct of the combat operations in the Wielkopolska Uprising are mainly based on the book by Anthony Czubinski, Zdzislaw Grot and Benon Miskiewicz: Powstanie wielkopolskie... (The Greater Poland Uprising ...). Helpful were the articles edited by Zdzislaw Grot in Powstanie wielkopolskie 1918—1919, Poznań 1968 (The WP Uprising 1918-1919, Poznań 1968). Also used is the work of A. Fenrych: Próba syntezy powstania wielkopolskiego, Poznań 1929 (A Try to evaluate the Wielkopolska Uprising, Poznan 1929) and Joseph Dowbor-Musnicki Moje wspomnienia, Warszawa 1935 (My Memories, Warsaw, 1935).
With regard to the issue of the three Silesian uprisings these are based primarily on two studies, Wrzoska Mieczyslaw: Powstania śląskie 1919-1921 (The Silesian Uprising 1919-1921 , Warsaw 1971 and Powstańcze działania zbrojne w 1921 r. w opolskiej części Górnego Śląska, Opole 1981 (Insurgent Armed Activities 1921 in the Polish part of Upper Silesia, Opole 1981) and also on the books of John Ludygi-Laskowski: Zarys historii trzech powstań śląskich 1919—1920—1921, Warszawa—Wrocław 1973 (Outline of the History of the three Silesian Uprisings 1919-1920-1921, Warszawa-Wroclaw 1973), published and edited by Andrew Brożka; Tadeusz Jędruszczak: Polityka Polski w sprawie Górnego Śląska, 1918-1922 (Polish Policy on Upper Silesia, 1918-1922, Warsaw 1958), Vaclav Ryżewski Trzecie powstanie śląskie, Warszawa 1977 (The Third Silesian Uprising, Warsaw, 1977) and Krzysztof Brożka: Polska służba medyczna w powstaniach śląskich i plebiscycie, Opole 1973 (Polish medical service during the Silesian Uprisings and the plebiscite, Opole 1973).
The description of the armed struggle for Czech-Silesia is based on a valuable article by J. Pryziński: Walka o Śląsk Cieszyński, „Bellona", 1921, t. IV (The struggle for Czech-Silesia, "Bellona", 1921, Vol IV) and on the book by J. Szczurek (From the great Days of Czech-Silesia, Cieszyn, 1928).

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