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Forum » Russian Civil war / Гражданская война в России » Thread: V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division) -- Page 1  Jump To: 


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T.S.
Active User


From: Copenhagen
Messages: 180

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 24-02-2012 03:56
 
10
V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
In late June 1918, work on the military organization for Volga and Siberia began. First joined the so-called Polish Revolutionary Committee for the Struggle of Freedom and Polish Federation (Polski Komitet Rewolucyjny do Walki o Wolność i Zjednoczenie Polski), established in Samara. The former Union of Arms (Związku Broni) in Irkutsk became active in the establishment, and also the Provisional Polish Military Committee in Omsk began to show interest for the organization. July 15, 1918, there was a meeting of representatives from these centres, a merger was made on the activities undertaken and so was established the Polish Military Committee (PMC) - (Polski Komitet Wojenny - PKW).
The committee acted as the political organ of the army and was intent to organize it. Agreed was to share same organization with an office of the Czech-Slovak National Council. The goal described by PMC was to fight "together with the countries of Central Europe and their allies until the unification of the Polish lands take place in an uniform and independent Polish State with independent access to the sea", but the troops organized under its aegis were actually directed by the armed forces of Soviet Russia. The local branch of the Czech-Slovak National Council began acting as supreme authority to the Polish troops, taking responsibility for their armament, equipment and supplies. The role as recruiting authorities were taken over by the PMC-branches, established in Samara, Bugulmi, Ufa, Orenburg, Yekaterinburg, Tiumen, Kurgan, Tobolsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Chita, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok.
Command took Major Waleri Czuma, who had the command of the Polish Army in Eastern Russia and Siberia. The function as Chief of Staff fell to Captain Romuald Wolikowski, promoted in May 1919 to Lt.-Colonel and replaced in August same year by Lt.-Colonel Ludwik Lichtarowicz.

In September 1918 the organization centre was relocated to Bugurusłan. Under formation was:
a regiment of rifles, led by Colonel Jan Skorobohat-Jakubowski,
a squadron of cavalry,
the beginnings of an artillery unit,
a battalion school under lieutenant Edward Dojan-Miszewski
an officers school under Colonel Casimir Rumszy.
In November 1918, giving way to the onslaught of the Red Army, the command of the Polish Army and the partly formed units moved to Nowonikołajewsk on Ob.
After making himself dictator, Admiral Aleksander Kolchak in Siberia was the coordinator of the White counter-revolutionary warfare, the several expeditionary forces from the Entente countries and different ethnic formations.
Command over all these formations were in January 1919 taken over by the French general Pierre Janin. He also became commander of the Polish troops, then formally part of the Polish Army in France. Liaison to these through General Haller was established by a special military mission, which February 7, 1919 arrived in Vladivostok under the direction of Major Miroslaw Okulicz-Kazaryn. As a result of all these changes, the Polish troops in Siberia partially recovered.
The organizational actions taken by Czumy, who on Nov. 28, 1918 was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, brought the establishment of the 5th Rifle Division. It was led by Colonel Kazimierz Rumsza, now promoted a colonel for the second time. Czumy was the commander of all Polish military formations in Siberia.

The V Corps grew into
four rifle regiments (the 4th Regiment existed only shortly and was transformed into a reserve battalion and a training school),
a cavalry regiment,
an artillery regiment,
an engineer battalion,
an assault battalion,
a communication company,
train units,
transport parks
medical units.

April 30, 1919 the etat of the division was 10.772 men with: 705 officers, 33 doctors, 36 administrative officers, 1.431 NCOs and 8.567 soldiers.
V Corps had to surrender facing the overwhelming superiority of the Red Army. It happened 10 January 1920 at the railway station Klukwiennaja, 120 km east of Krasnoyarsk. The remains returned to Poland by sea. On July 1, 1920, arrived 120 officers and 800 soldiers together with Colonel Rumszą.
In December 1919, and so much earlier, the battalion with the so-called murmańczyków (Murmansk-men) returned to Poland, having been officially part of the V Corps in Murmansk. Since June 1918 it first was commanded by Colonel. Stanislaus Dowoyn-Sołłohub and then by Lt.-Colonel Julius Skokowski, it had about 400 officers and privates.

uniforms see: http://www.kolchakiya.narod.ru/uniformology/Poles.htm
In several Polish comments are said, the Poles in Siberia wore French uniforms - not in horizon blue, but in green?

T.S.
Active User


From: Copenhagen
Messages: 180

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 24-02-2012 07:59
 

The photos below are all from an un-named Polish officer, who ended up in the V Corps and later returned to Poland and took part in the war 1919-1920. The explaining texts are all handwritten on the back of the photos. The photos have been found on the Polish auction site Allegro. Fresh water supply to the Polish staff in Siberia 1918 Staff officers with the Siberian Division in Nowo-Nikolajewsk, Siberia. The Polish Commander of I Corps with his staff in Novo-Nikolajevsk, Siberia 1919. (Note the special rank distinctions, which I do not remember having seen before. ts) Funeral in Nowo-Nikolajewsk of the Poles fallen in battle with the Bolsheviks at Barnaul, Siberia. October 1919. Parade on the anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald in Nowo-Nikolajewsk, Siberia.1919. Parade of 3rd Regiment Rifles in Nowo-Nikolajewsk, Siberia. 19-3-1919. Officers school in Nowo-Nikolajewsk, Siberia 8 May1919. The Polish text says "Najemny Komitet Polski na Siberia 1919", which is a little difficult to translate meaningfully, but it translates something like "The Polish Mercenary/Intervention Committee in Siberia, 1919." I hope a Pole reading this can come up with a better translation. The officers seem to be Polish, Czech and French plus some politicians.


Mass being held 19-3-1919 in Nowo-Nikolajewsk 1919, with officers' families attending. Anniversary of the Battle of Samara with guard of honor, Siberia. 1919. Poles on their way through Siberia.
1st Battalion from 1st Regiment in Siberia 1919.




5. Polish Division. Officers-school in Siberia in Nowo-Nikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk). Marts 1919.


5. Polish Division. The officers-school in Nowo-Nikolayevsk parading 19 Marts 1919.


The MG-Company of 1st Rifle Regiment in 5. Polish Division in Siberia 1918.


Lancers from 5. Division

Cuprum
Message Maniac


From: Барнаул
Messages: 762

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 04-04-2012 10:14
 

Thank you for these photos. Some I have not seen before.
I wonder what to wear helmets Poles in the photo parade at the Novo-Nikolaevsk - Adrians? or is it a German helmet?



T.S.
Active User


From: Copenhagen
Messages: 180

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 04-04-2012 18:39
 
I guess the helmets are French (or maybe Russian) Adrians, as there were large depots on forign military equipment and uniforms along the Trans-Siberian Railway, not least in Samara. To find many German helmets in Siberia, I would think rather difficult so late into the RCW.
I guess it is an assault or machine-gun company with the helmets.

Николай
Active User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1450

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 05-04-2012 03:06
 
Кстати, в составе 5-й дивизии был Литовский батальон.

Quote:
Командованию польских войск в Восточной России и Сибири также подчинялся отдельный литовский батальон имени Витольда Великого. Это подразделение было сформировано на основе одной из рот 1-го стрелкового полка, в его состав входили солдаты литовской национальности. Его формирование началось в июле 1919 г. под Новониколаевском. Командиром батальона был назначен капитан Петрас Линкевичюс. Солдаты батальона носили ту же форму, что и вся дивизия, однако с отличавшими их от прочих знаками. На фуражке вместо орла был помещен знак "Погони".

Революционная Россия 1917 года и польский вопрос. Новые источники, новые взгляды. Сборник польских и российских исследователей. М., Институт славяноведения РАН, 2009. с.240.

Потом батальон благополучно перешел к красным.

T.S.
Active User


From: Copenhagen
Messages: 180

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 05-04-2012 03:59
 
Николай,
"На фуражке вместо орла был помещен знак "Погони"."
What did the cap badge look like?
A mounted knight?

Cuprum
Message Maniac


From: Барнаул
Messages: 762

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 05-04-2012 07:33
 
Yes, T.S.
Pahonia - is an old emblem of the Polish-Lithuanian state.
Looked like the cap badge is in this unit of the military - I do not know yet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahonia

Николай
Active User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1450

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 29-05-2012 23:30
 
T.S. wroute:
Quote:
In several Polish comments are said, the Poles in Siberia wore French uniforms - not in horizon blue, but in green?
No, no green.
That's what Soviet historians wrote about the 1st International regiment, which was formed in early 1920 in Irkutsk, and received uniforms of the Polish case.
Quote:
Внешне командиры и бойцы Интернационального полка производили странное впечатление. Многие из них были одеты в светло-серую добротную форму, которую они с боем отбили у польских легионеров, бежавших от Красной Армии в районе Иркутска. Эта форма нередко приводила к различным недоразумениям, но красные нашивки и звезды на папахах выручали интернационалистов.
А.Кладт, В.Кондратьев. Быль о "золотом эшелоне". М., 1966. С.114

Externally, the commanders and soldiers of an international regiment made a strange impression. Many of them were dressed in light-gray soundly form, which they captured from the battle of the Polish Legion, who had fled from the Red Army in the region of Irkutsk. This form is often led to various misunderstandings, but the red stripes and stars on the hats rescued internationalists.
A.Kladt, V.Kondratev. The story about the "gold tier." M., 1966. p.114

Light-gray - of course, this is light-blue uniform, authors confused. Or uniform washed out colour.

Николай
Active User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1450

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 30-05-2012 23:01
 
Кстати, еще одно фото 5-й дивизии. Ноябрь 1919 г., Владивосток.



Николай
Active User




From: Воронеж
Messages: 1450

 V Polish Corps (also known as 5th Rifle Division)
Sent: 28-06-2012 16:57
 
Имеется свидетельство Б.Б. Филимонова, что во время Хабаровского похода зимою 1921-1922 гг. часть бойцов 1-й стрелковой (Глудкинской) бригады и подавляющее большинство чинов 3-ей Пластунской бригады все еще продолжали ходить «в плащах (красно-бурого цвета, имелись в Армии Адмирала Колчака, в них же ходила и 5-я Польская дивизия)» (5). Плащи эти были слишком холодными и в условиях Сибирской зимы показали свою полную непригодность. Можно предполагать, что эти «красно-бурые плащи» на самом деле не что иное, как закупленные старые шинели армии США образца 1883 или 1904 годов, которые действительно были красновато-бурого цвета.

Петров А.А. Униформа егерей и портупей-юнкеров Учебно-Инструкторских школ армии адмирала Колчака: попытка реконструкции// Доброволецъ. М., 2004. № 2 (4). С. 52-53.

kolchakiya.narod.ru/uniformology/features_regimentals.htm

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